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The University was modelled after the best Universities of the United Kingdom , today retains some of these features; the affiliating system of the University however evolved to be different from the college system in British Universities. Only ten colleges within the State of Travancore, which were at that time affiliated to the Madras University, became the affiliated colleges of the University of Travancore. In , the unified state of Kerala came into being with most of Travancore and whole of state of Cochin and Malabar area of Madras presidency becoming part of it; the Kerala University Act was brought into force and the University of Travancore was renamed University of Kerala.
The University had three campuses located in three different parts of the State viz. Thiruvananthapuram and Kozhikode ; the number of affiliated colleges grew phenomenally. However, in , the University Centre at Kozhikode became a full-fledged University, the University of Calicut , affiliating the colleges located in Thrissur , Palakkad and Kannur districts of Kerala and transforming the Kozhikkode Centre into University Departments. These developments have shrunk the jurisdiction of the University of Kerala to Thiruvananthapuram, Alappuzha Districts and some parts of Pathanamthitta District.
At present, the University has sixteen faculties and forty one departments of teaching and research in addition to study centres and other departments. Teaching and Knowledge extension are the mandate of the Departments, they focus on post-graduate programmes, MPhil programmes and doctoral research. In , the University awarded over PhDs.. The University has had in its faculties eminent scholars; some of the faculty members themselves were legends, such as famous poet K Ayyappa Panciker, Oriental scholar T Ganapathi Sasthri etc. Some of these centres have taught many offer PhD programmes.
The University has established 10 University College of Teacher Education and 8 University Institute of Technologies both of which offer under-graduate programmes, although masters programmes are available in select UITs; the University College of Engineering at Karyavattom offers Engineering Education at Undergraduate level. The University has over affiliated colleges; the role of the University is in prescribing courses of study and conducting examinations and issuing certificates.
The day-to-day administration of these institutions is not under the purview of the University. However, these institutions form a major part of the University. Of these The beach is on the western side of Thiruvananthapuram and near to Trivandrum International Airport ; the vast stretch of white sand and the serene atmosphere, away from the crowd in the city, provide all the ingredients for relaxation and for spending an ideal evening.
There is a " Star Fish Restaurant" with eating kiosks and open-air theatre with car parking facilities. Good food can be enjoyed at the Old Coffee House , just across the beach, a vantage point for enjoying the sunset; the beach is not well maintained, with garbage littering the entire area. Shanghu mugham is the prime location for Ganesh Nimarjan at the time of Vinayaka Chathurthi. His Highness the now-titular Maharaja of Travancore will lead the procession with the royal sword in hand, who will be escorted by members of the Royal family, armed guards, temple authorities, mounted police, officers.
After the ceremonial bath in Shanghumugham, images are taken back in procession which marks the conclusion of the festival; the skating school here offers the coaching on skating. Adjacent to the skating school is an indoor sports complex which provides facilities for Badminton and Table Tennis ; the sculpture of Sagarakanyaka - Mermaid by Kanayi Kunhiraman is an added attraction. This giant statue is more than 35m long.
The'Jawaharlal Nehru Park of Traffic signs for children' is situated here, helpful for the children to understand the traffic rules while playing in the park; the park provides cycling facilities for small children. Veli Tourist Village is near from the Shankumugham Beach boating facilities are offered at this picnic spot. Speed boats and well landscaped gardens are available. Thiruvananthapuram Thiruvananthapuram known by its former name Trivandrum, is the capital of the Indian state of Kerala. It is the most populous city in Kerala with a population of , as of ; the encompassing urban agglomeration population is around 1.
Referred to by Mahatma Gandhi as the " Evergreen city of India", the city is characterised by its undulating terrain of low coastal hills; the Ays ruled the present region of Thiruvananthapuram until the 10th century. With their fall in the 10th century, the city was taken over by the Chera dynasty; the city was taken over by the Kingdom of Venad in the 12th century. In the 17th century the king Marthanda Varma expanded the territory and founded the princely state of Travancore and Thiruvananthapuram was made capital of Travancore.
Following India's independence in , Thiruvananthapuram became the capital of Travancore-Cochin state and remained capital when the new Indian state of Kerala was formed in Thiruvananthapuram is a notable academic and research hub and is home to the University of Kerala , Kerala Technological University the regional headquarters of Indira Gandhi National Open University , many other schools and colleges. Thiruvananthapuram is a major tourist centre, known for the Padmanabhaswamy Temple , the beaches of Kovalam and Varkala , the backwaters of Poovar and Anchuthengu and its Western Ghats tracts of Ponmudi and the Agastyamala.
In , Thiruvananthapuram was named the best Kerala city to live in, by a field survey conducted by The Times of India. In , the city was ranked the fifteenth best city to live in India, in a survey conducted by India Today ; the city was selected as the best-governed city in India in the survey conducted by Janaagraha Centre for citizenship and democracy in Thiruvananthapuram is known in the literature, popular reference as Ananthapuri derived from the Sanskrit word Syanandurapuram, meaning "The City of Bliss" in Carnatic kirtanas composed by Swathi Thirunal , erstwhile Maharaja of Travancore.
The city was referred to as Trivandrum until , when the government decided to reinstate the city's original name Thiruvananthapuram. Thiruvananthapuram is an ancient region with trading traditions dating back to BCE, it is believed that the ships of King Solomon landed in a port called Ophir in Thiruvananthapuram in BCE. The city was the trading post of spices and ivory. However, the ancient political and cultural history of the city was entirely independent from that of the rest of Kerala; the early rulers of the city were the Ays.
Vizhinjam , now a region in the present-day Thiruvananthapuram , was the capital of Ay dynasty. Vizhinjam was an important port city from as early as 2nd century BC.
During the Ay dynasty rule, Thiruvananthapuram witnessed many battles in which the Chola and Pandyan dynasties attempted to capture the port town. After the death of king Vikramaditya Varaguna in AD, the glory of the Ays departed and all their territories became part of the Chera dynasty. During the 10th century, the Cholas sacked Vizhinjam and surrounding regions. The port in Vizhinjam and the historic education center of Kanthalloor Sala was destroyed by Cholas during this period. A branch of the Ay family, controlling the Padmanabhaswamy Temple, merged with the Kingdom of Venad in the 12th century.
In the late 17th century, Marthanda Varma who inherited the Kingdom of Venad expanded the kingdom by conquering kingdoms of Attingal , Kayamkulam , Kottayam , Meenachil and Ambalapuzha. In , Marthanda Varma founded the princely state of Thiruvithamkoor and Thiruvananthapuram was made the capital in after shifting the capital from Padmanabhapuram in Kanyakumari district; the kingdom of Travancore was dedicated by Marthanda Varma to the deity Sri. Padmanabha; the rulers of Travancore ruled the kingdom as the servants of Sri.
Padmanabha; the city developed into a significant artistic centre during this period. The golden age in the city's history was during the mid 19th century under the reign of Maharaja Swathi Thirunal and Maharaja Ayilyam Thirunal. The first mental hospital in the state was started during the same period. Sanskrit College , Ayurveda Co. The falls are located near the Neyyar Reservoir area. No transportation is available so visitors have to trek 2km through the dense forests to reach the falls, it is beautiful fall with beautiful surroundings. The Kombaikani Falls lie 2 kilometres upstream of the Meenmutti Falls on the trek path to Agastyakoodam.
Meenmutty Waterfalls. Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala and Andhra Pradesh , it is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains , the Meghamalai Hills, Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, by the Indian Ocean on the south.
The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu is the sixth largest by population, it has a high HDI ranking among Indian states as of It was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a report published by the Reserve Bank of India.
Its official language is Tamil , one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. The region was ruled by several empires, including the three great empires — Chola and Pandyan empires, which shape the region's cuisine and architecture; the British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai known as Madras, as a world-class city. Modern-day Tamil Nadu was formed in after the reorganization of states on linguistic lines; the state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage sites.
Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. In Attirampakkam , archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggests that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around , years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa.
In Adichanallur , 24 km from Tirunelveli , archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed clay urns containing human skulls, bones, grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the Neolithic period, 3, years ago. The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies.
About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, most of these are in the Tamil language. According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan , this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Harappan language"; the date of the celt was estimated at between BCE and BCE.
Migration apart, there is a complete absence of Harappan artefacts and features south of the Vindhyas : no Harappan designs on pottery, no Harappan seals and ornaments, no trace of Harappan urbanism… Cultural continuity from Harappan to historical times has been documented in North India , but not in the South… This means, in effect, that the south-bound Late Harappans would have reverted from an advanced urban bronze-age culture to a Neolithic one! Numismatic and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about eight centuries, from BC to AD The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in Sangam Era ; the Bhakti movement originated in Tamil speaking region of South India and spread northwards through India.
The Bhakti Movement was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in this region with the Saiva Nayanars and the Vaisnava Alvars who spread bhakti poetry and devotion; the Alwars and Nayanmars were instrumental in propagating the Bhakti tradition. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Much the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Etymology [ edit ] Oolanpara as the name implies used to be famous for its numerous wolves. Retrieved 6 March Thiruvananthapuram district. Article by N Kesavan Nair in Akashvani, The tastes developed by people by exposure to one form of media will influence their attitudes towards all other forms of media.
Thus radio is also devoting more and more time for entertainment, advertisements etc. When the Prasar Bharathi comes into existence, it may have to run helter skelter behind big ticket corporations and companies to sponsor entertainment oriented programmes…… However, in the Indian context, the accent should always be on carrying forward the process of creating awareness among the common people and ensuring their financial and economic well being.
The main question confronting the grant of autonomy to the electronic media is whether it will help in Language in India www.
Article by Thottam Rajashekharan in Akashvani, Its mandate was to review the provisions of the Prasar Bharathi act and to make recommendations regarding its restructuring. The advent of satellite channels and their rapid proliferation have substantially transformed the environment that prevailed till when Prasar Bharathi, the autonomous broadcasting corporation was envisaged.
A complete rethinking of the role, organization and functions of Prasar Bharathi became necessary in a multi channel scenario, mostly driven by market forces. Prasar Bharathi needs the requisite degree of flexibility and financial powers to hold its own. There has been a constant debate concerning the quality and purpose of Indian Broadcasting for quite some time now. Some basic questions will have to be addressed to be able to evolve a vibrant and versatile model of a national broadcasting system, including a reinvigorated Prasar Bharathi, in a vastly changed and fast changing scenario.
The summary and recommendations of the expert group have very clearly described the state of affairs of Indian broadcasting in the s and some relevant portions of the report merits full quotation. The boundaries between broadcasting, telecommunications and information technologies are becoming blurred. The new technologies have demolished the monopoly of State run electronic media and rigid regulations of yester years in the realm of broadcasting have become ineffective and impractical.
Both Akashvani and Doordarshan have attempted with mixed successes to adjust themselves with the fast changing scenario. They have had a remarkable record in public service broadcasting. They are the major cultural patrons of music, drama and the visual arts. They have no peers as purveyors of messages intended to support and stimulate socio economic development. But what tended to undermine the image of these so called official media was the impression that had gained over the years that they could be influenced by those who wished to manipulate them for their own needs, whether it is the government of the day or other interested groups.
The vociferous demand for granting autonomy to the electronic media and thus insulating them against external pressures ultimately led to the promulgation of the Prasar Bharathi act of the The postulates that guided the Act have been overtaken by several events of the nineties especially the emergence of transnational broadcasting and the two separate but concurring landmark judgments on airwaves by the Supreme Court in February, Language in India www. As a sequel to this judgment, the working group observed, it has become necessary to establish a regulatory framework for regulating the various channels.
In another important recommendation, the group clearly declared that financial support from the government fro public broadcasting is inevitable. Sengupta, They include transferring immovable assets like land to the autonomous corporation. Against an expenditure of around Rs 2, crores, Prasar Bharati just manages revenues of around Rs crores, and depends on government grants and aid for the rest.
A committee headed by Information and Broadcasting Secretary is studying the matter and has held various meetings to find a solution to the financial crunch of Prasar Bharati and make it a selfsustainable entity. The report says that a senior official told press reporters in New Delhi that they had gone through a variety of proposals and a final decision was expected in around one month. The official said Prasar Bharati was currently occupying lucrative government real estate across the country, on which it has its offices and other equipments.
One of the proposals being considered, according to the official, was either to transfer the land to Prasar Bharati for free or work out other arrangements. Autonomy for radio and television. All India Radio as well as Doordarshan has always been seen by the general public as an extension of the government in power. As far as the common man is concerned, what is said in the radio is the point of view of the government. Similarly, this government centric impression about the medium has led to certain attitudes, in the Language in India www. This has affected the style of presentation and the nature of input of All India Radio.
There is a predisposition on the part of the public that whatever comes from an official source should be treated as merely one side of the picture. Even in the innocuous area of development communication, when the recommended inputs are not available at the field level, it is the credibility of the official media that is unfortunately eroded.sf.saymon.info/rus-phone-tracking-software.php
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On the one hand, their position as an organ of the Government places on it the responsibility to project the policies and objectives of the Government. As an extended arm of publicity for the Government, it presents and emphasizes viewpoints which the government is anxious to place before the people. Sevanti Ninan, in an article in The Hindu, dated August 28, , is perhaps one of the best ways to conclude this discussion on the history and evolution of All India Radio.
Not just for every votary of public service broadcasting, but also for audiences, and most importantly these days, for the market. For fast moving consumer goods targeting the rural sector, it remains the medium of choice. This year AIR grossed its highest revenues in a decade at Rs. The present move by the Central Information and Broadcasting Ministry to encourage FM radio stations in the private sector must be seen against this background of the formation of the Prasar Bharathi Corporation and the common perception regarding the autonomy and credibility of official media.
Anyone who has a doubt about the potential of FM radio should look at the history of mobile telephony in the country. After migrating from the fixed licence fee regime to a revenue-sharing model, the industry has just taken off, and is today the showpiece of India's decade-and-a-half liberalisation policy. The telecom companies have done so well under Language in India www. The Centre can also benefit from the taxes it gets on corporate profits as well.
Finally, there is tremendous benefit for the consumers. The reforms in telecom led to the emergence of the mobile players, who through their constant price war, brought the cost of owning a mobile down. Now we have a situation where Nokia, the world's largest handset maker is set to begin manufacturing in the country. Various other players like Elcoteq, LG, Alcatel, etc.
This would make it even cheaper for anyone to go mobile. Of course, the cost involved in tuning into FM radio is nowhere close to what it is in owning a mobile phone. A person can buy a simple FM radio for under Rs today. Still, the benefits in terms of the infotainment value are enormous. The gains from the higher FM radio penetration could be far more if only the Government relents on the on the issue of allowing FM operators to air news and current affairs programmes.
If private television channels can be allowed to beam news and current affairs, why not FM radio channels? The reach of radio is many times more than television. The phase-II expansion of private FM radio kicked off in September, , with the information and broadcasting ministry notifying the two-stage process. The eligibility conditions of interested companies on financial terms and other related matters will be verified in stage-I. In stage-II, financial bids will be evaluated for specific frequencies. The last date for submission of applications is November 7 The entire process of bidding and awarding the frequencies is expected to be over by mid-December, ministry officials said.
To discourage non-serious participants, financial eligibility of applicants will be evaluated in the stage-I, pre- qualification notification. The final selection for grant of permission to establish and operate an FM radio channel in any city shall be made in stage II financial bids out of the applicants in the pre-qualification bids stage I found eligible after following the criteria and the procedure as detailed in the tender document, the notification said.
However, sensing commercial opportunity in allowing news of a non-political nature on community radio, the Cabinet decided to refer the phase-II Language in India www. The coverage is AIR covers 24 Languages and dialects in home services. Website of All India Radio. This web site has also compiled a list of main accomplishments which runs as follows: On August 15,, when India attained Independence the number of radio stations was six - at Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Tiruchirapalli and Lucknow.
The first Radio Sangeet Sammelan was held in On October 3, Vividh Bharati Services started. On July 21, Yuvavani services were started at Delhi. The Akashvani Annual Awards instituted in By all radio stations were provided with 5 channel satellite receiver terminals. October 2, saw the commissioning of FM Channel at Jalandhar. The practice of introducing time slots on FM channel to private parties was started at Mumbai on August 15, With this Bangalore has become one of the biggest transmitting centres in the world. On January 13, Audio on demand on Internet Service was started.
Started started broadcasting on February 25, In this chapter, the growth of All India Radio in Kerala and the development of the News Services division are documented. From a few hundred sets owned by affluent individuals, in small pockets of erstwhile Travancore state, radio now reaches every nook and corner of Kerala and abroad. Radio programmes covering a broad spectrum of interests in arts, culture, science, education, economic development etc are broadcast for a total duration of 97 hours.
The first radio broadcast in Malayalam was from Madras in But, even before that, the Travancore royal family, based in Thiruvananthapuram, had initiated steps to set up a regular radio station. A team of officers had gone to Bombay, where a Language in India www.
The transmitter was established at Pangappara near Kulathur in Thiruvananthapuram, while the studios functioned at theband stand in Palayam, near the present MLA hostel. Although the work started in , actual transmission commenced only on March 12, ARU report, During the initial days the transmission time was three hours. It was sung sometimes by the announcer, and sometimes by tempura artists.
The programes used to end with the rendering of Vancheesa mangalam, a song in praise of the Travancore King. Music, features, akshara slokam, poetry reading, small dramas, talks etc were some of the programmes aired during the initial days.
At that time Professor R Sreenivasan was its Director. The time of broadcast was four times a week, from 7. Transmission used to open with a Swathi kriti and conclude with the Vanci mangalam. In those days, radio was considered part of the telephone department and Madhavan pillai came from this department. In , the Thiruvananthapuram station was taken over by All India Radio.
GPS Nair took charge as the first director of the station. The broadcasting time was extended from three hours a day to seven and a half hours. The relay of two Malayalam news bulletins from New Delhi was started as also the relay of important English news bulletins. This necessitated the urgent augmentation of studio facilities. Convinced of the need for a more spacious accommodation, they suggested a location some where near the heart of the city. The Maharaja of Travancore came up with the idea of utilizing Bhakti Vilasam for the purpose. He also suggested Kanakakunnu palace as an alternative.
Though the Chief Minister was not personally in favor of the idea, the mater was placed before the Cabinet, which took a decision in favor of All India Radio. The Kozhikode station of was started in Later a station was established in Thrissur in Later still, with the intention of increasing the power and extent of transmission, a KW station Language in India www.
These were upgraded to 20 KW MW on 1. Vividh Bharathi. Figures and dated from ARU Report, Commencing in a small way in , the NSD now produces news bulletins every day. In addition, it provides latest services like the phone in for news service as well as an internet site. The first news bulletin was aired on 23 July , from the privately owned radio station at Mumbai.
It was only in August, , that the news unit of AIR came into being, when the first news bulletin was broadcast from Delhi. An organized effort to streamline the use and style of language used in All India radio news broadcasts was started in when G D Mirchandani was the Director of News Services. Later in , a detailed set of guidelines was published under the leadership Language in India www. This set of guidelines was, in effect, the very first style book prepared for broadcasting in India.
As far as official media are concerned, the Government of India has prepared an official policy document that deals with news in the official context. This committee submitted its report in The second edition of the All India Radio stylebook takes note of all these sets of guidelines. In the beginning, when broadcasting was being done under the aegis of the Indian Broadcasting company, the concept of editing and preparing news especially for radio was not known. The practice then was to take news items put out by the international news agencies like the Reuters and read them out aloud.
The news items of the news agencies used to reach the offices of the broadcaster by tele printers. News broadcast really came of age in the All India Radio in , with the Delhi station of AIR starting a regular bulletin to coincide with the start of their transmission. A current affairs programme, dealing with issues of contemporary relevance was also started from AIR, Delhi.
Around this time, a separate organization was deemed necessary to oversee the efficient preparation of news bulletins and to ensure the impartiality and objectivity of news broadcast over All India Radio. Thus, the Central News Organization came into being on August 1, The Second World War proved to be the testing ground for the fledgling news organization. It was also an impetus for developing the news gathering and transmitting apparatus rapidly. This period saw the introduction of news bulletins in Tamil, Telugu, Marathi and Gujarati being broadcast from Delhi.
By the end of the Second World War, the Central News Organization had overcome many of its teething troubles and was fast evolving into a completely professional news organization. By , the number of news bulletins had already increased to 27, and the duration of news broadcast totaled to three and a half hours. After Independence, news broadcasting over All India Radio underwent rapid transformation as far as quantity and quality were concerned.
The number of news broadcasts had risen to 74 and they had acquired the specific objectives of reflecting what Language in India www. At present, AIR broadcasts news bulletins in 81 languages and dialects. These bulletins fall into three classes — national, regional and external. This differentiation is made on the basis of the intended listener ship of the bulletin. The subject matter of the bulletins also differs from this point of view.
Thus, national bulletins are usually broadcast from New Delhi and are intended for listeners all over the country. News items of national relevance are invariably selected for these bulletins. There are national bulletins being broadcast daily in 17 languages. The total duration of these bulletins comes to 14 hours and 29 minutes. Figures regarding number, duration etc of news bulletins taken from the website of All India Radio. Regional bulletins are broadcast from AIR stations situated all over the country.
These bulletins are mainly intended for listeners in the specific regions. News items of regional importance that do not find place in national bulletins are broadcast in the regional bulletins. For example, a festival of regional relevance, like that of a major temple in Kerala, may find mention in the regional bulletins broadcast from Thiruvananthapuram and Kozhikode, but not in the Malayalam national bulletin broadcast from New Delhi.
However, the start of the pilgrim season at Sabarimala may find mention in the National Malayalam bulletin also because of the national importance of the shrine. It is also to be noted here that the language of the national bulletin also is a factor when it comes to the decision on what to Language in India www. The Sabarimala pilgrimage may be included in the Malayalam bulletin from New Delhi, but it need not necessarily find place in the English or Hindi bulletins.
However, Tamil, Telugu and Kannada bulletins may include this news item because these are states neighboring Kerala and number of Sabarimala pilgrims from these states is ever on the increase. The number of regional bulletins broadcast every day in All India Radio is The total duration of these broadcasts comes to 20 hours and 35 minutes.
External bulletins are broadcast by All India Radio, with the prime purpose of reaching Indians living abroad. These bulletins also reflect the Indian viewpoint concerning various international political, social and financial developments. The external services are aimed at four broad categories of listeners.
They are listeners in neighboring countries, listeners of Indian origin, l English speaking population in general, and other foreign listeners.
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This is because India does not have, at present, a relay base which would enable it to originate transmissions from sites close to the intended targets. How ever, canned programmes are sent every week to ethnic broadcasting stations through Indian missions abroad. The external bulletins are in English and in some other Indian languages like Hindi and Tamil.
At present there are 65 external bulletins, being broadcast in 25 languages. The total duration of these bulletins comes to 8 hours and 57 minutes. Thus, All India Radio got connected on the information superhighway, by mounting an experimental on - line information service on the Internet. AIR daily news update, commentary on topics from current affairs and the significant highlights from the country's newspapers are fed regularly once a day in text mode.
The system and home page design for this pilot service has been executed by the Research Department of AIR. This AIR service on the Net has received global appreciation and in the first ten days itself, over 7. The experience and insightful feedback gathered from this experimental programme will be useful for setting up a regular information service of AIR on the Net.
The multiplicity of languages that All India Radio deals with makes for a unique feature of the news broadcast of the network. The pioneers of radio news in India recognized the need for providing people with news in their languages and thus was established the system of national and regional bulletins in English, Hindi and various regional languages. The significance of the pool system developed in All India Radio lies in the fact that it ensures unity in treatment of news items. It also makes for ease in deciding the policy of treatment of various news items.
Under this system, which was introduced right in the pioneering days of radio news in New Delhi, a basic news script is prepared in Language in India www. This script will be different for national, regional and external bulletins. The editors of various language bulletins can choose the items they feel are relevant to their listeners from this pool. In the post Independence era, the preparation of the basic script was also being done in Hindi, the National language. Masani Mehra discusses the problems specific to All India Radio, against this background.
The pool system was introduced in because of the large number of bulletins to be prepared and because of the lack of staff to prepare them separately for each of the various regional languages that have considerable listener ship in various parts of the country. She points out categorically that various Indian language bulletins are solely prepared by translators from the pool copy. It would also get over the difficulty of translating news from English into the regional languages Language in India www.
But it was argued that expert newsrooms at every station, with the required complement of editorial staff, monitors, teleprinters, correspondents and reporters would be more expensive than the present arrangement.
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At present, the number of such regional units is The first regional bulletin from the states was broadcast from Lucknow and Nagpur in Bangalore followed sit ion November First, Telugu regional news from Hyderabad commenced on February 7th, and the Malayalam regional news from Thiruvananthapuram began broadcast on August 15th, Second regional news units were started in Vijayawada, Dharwad and Trichy in and However, a second regional news unit in Kerala was functional at Kozhikode right from April 14th, Malayalam news broadcast from Thiruvananthapuram station was started on Independence Day, But news brodcasting in Kerala had a much earlier history.
Results of the elections wherein Language in India www. According to K N Damodaran nair, who had served in All India Radio during those days, the broadcasting of these results was the first news broadcasts from Kerala. Akashvani and unpublished manuscripts. During the days of Travancore Broadcasting Station, that is before the station was taken over by All India Radio, English news also used to be broadcast. Another news bulletin was started in Kerala from Kozhikode on April 14th A news bulletin in Mahal language of Lakshadweep is also being broadcast from Kozhikode station.
Some shortfalls of AIR news. Masani Mehra includes a detailed critique of the functioning of news programs in All India Radio. For the greater part the complaints stem from the provincial, parochial and communal outlook of some of the listeners. Influential persons complain if the news concerning them is not broadcast or not given enough importance. Quite a few complaints are concerned with relatively minor matters such as mispronunciation Language in India www. But certainly there are major problems involved in the broadcast of news which require serious consideration by the public without in anyway minimizing the magnitude of the news operation and its commendable regularity and punctuality.
In her opinion the major flaws can be attributed directly or indirectly to its functioning as a government department. Topicality involves urgent decisions that must be taken by the editor on duty. A system of hierarchical checks and controls reduces the editor to a mere draughtsman. Besides laying AIR open to the charge of biased reporting of news, the present practice of overloading the bulletins with ministerial and official pronouncements, even when they contain no policy announcements, makes the newscast dull.
If such matter could be pruned A news reel programme called Vartha Tarangini is also being broadcast twice a week from both the stations in Kerala. It consists of excerpts and actualities from major news and current affairs events that come within the coverage area of these stations. K N Damodaran Nair remembers that the first news reel programme was aired during the s.
Here the main deity is taken out in procession on the last day of the temple festival to the Shankhumukham beach for a ritual bath. The programme was produced by Vivekanandan and myself. Unpublished manuscript, K N Damodaran Nair. In the fifties, All India Radio started the practice of broadcasting a short duration bulletin consisting of solely strange news that has the quality of oddity. In Malayalam it was called Kouthuka Varthakal and used to be broadcast every Sunday.
Ramachandran, a veteran news reader developed a unique style of presenting these news broadcasts in a hearer friendly manner. Following this, the Kozhikode station instituted a weekly news analysis programme called Deepthi which exhaustively treats of a current affairs subject, exploring the various aspects of the subject. The Malayalam news broadcast in the External Services is one of the latest Malayalam news programmes to be introduced. It is of ten minutes duration and is aired at A large number of calls were received and frequent up dates of results were posted.
The Discourse of Radio News. The discourse of radio news is generated out of a script prepared by a set of reporters and editors. They follow a set of conventions. They may also follow a style book which lays down rules of punctuation, spelling, prosody etc. This means radio news presentation involves two processes with differing requirements at the same time. It is a script that is written for reading. That means, it is written in for comprehension and read out for communication. Here a significant differentiation arises. A news script is something more than what is written down for others to read.
It is a script written down to be read out aloud. So, the differences between the processes of writing, reading and listening all come to the fore and problematise the process of radio news presentation. It is also to be noted here that the broadcast of a news bulletin involves at least three stages, which have their own differing criterion. They are usually in English and are oriented more for the requirements of the print media.
Translation to the regional language and adjustments for broadcast language usually takes place at this stage, although the tenets of written language are mainly followed here. Here, the conventions of reading and reading out aloud attain prominence. Finally at the third stage of actual broadcast, the efficacy of the script has to be evaluated.
Here, the conventions of listening become paramount. Language — Written, Spoken and Read Written language emerged to satisfy new communicative needs — in particular the need for permanent records that could be referred to again and again. Thus, the contexts of using written language are far removed from those of using the spoken language. In the main, written language is addressed to someone far removed in space - and may be in time — from the person who is writing.
So, written language necessarily developed a style of self contained - ness — a quality that is decisive in ensuring intelligibility of the text. From this, it naturally follows that written texts tend to be more complex from a linguistics point of view. Written texts have more chances of involving longer sentences, more complex clauses, greater information load and higher lexical density.
They tend to have more subordinate clauses, more long sequences of prepositional phrases, more attributive adjectives and more passive constructions than spoken language. It also means that in written discourse, words themselves are the prime movers of meaning. What could possibly be conveyed through non — verbal behavior in spoken discourse also Language in India www. On the other hand, spoken discourse faces another set of constraints. One of the main constraints is that spoken discourse is uni - directional.
The listener is constrained to understand the message in the order in which it is conveyed as far as spoken discourse is concerned. However, basically, the differences between these two forms of discourses stem from the fact that each has its own level of signification. By tone, stress and pauses, the speaker can pass on an enormous amount of information to the listener. At the same time, written discourse has developed an array of techniques that seek to imitate the immediacy and reactivity of spoken discourse.
Again, while spoken discourse is discursive and digressive in nature, written discourse scores in its logicality and well formed-ness. Spoken discourse reflects the regional and local environs of the language, while written discourse attempts to achieve homogeneity and acts as a standardization element as far as language as a whole is concerned. The Element of Listening.
Radio news brings two more elements into this frame work of spoken — written paradigm. In a strict sense, radio news is not spoken language; rather, it is more apt to call radio news a read language. Since radio news derives its relevance from the fact that it is listened to by a large number of people, it can also be called a listened language. The website of the Princeton University has defined reading as a public performance also.
News reading is an amalgamation of both these processes. It involves the understanding of the meaning of the written text on the part of the news reader. It also refers to the reading out aloud of a script in certain well defined environments, following a set of rules and conventions. However, it has to be noted that the dynamics of listening to a news script read out on the radio is different from the way in which a person hears and understands what another person is saying.
It is also different from the performance of a person who reads out a script in front of an audience. In short, the discourse of radio news is a complex activity that involves the processes of writing, speaking, listening and hearing. Characteristics of news discourse. Thus, it follows that the discourse of radio news can be realized from the different sets of binaries discussed above. The binaries involved are the spoken — written paradigm and the read — listened relationship.
In addition, the basic characteristics of the broadcast media also have a significant role in shaping up the form and content of the news script. The first two factors arise out of the fact that radio news arises out of a written script. When the third, fourth and fifth factors are also considered, they may together be considered to refer to the characteristics of the broadcast medium.
The fifth factor, along with the remaining four, refers to the features of radio news a spoken, read and listened discourse. The first two factors underline the fact that the discourse of news has to be self contained. All the information that is necessary for the audience to decipher the message has to be included in the script and its presentation.
The news reader is not in a position to see and gauge the reactions of the audience and adjust his discourse accordingly. Similarly, the audience is not in a position to interrupt a news bulletin and call for explanations or additional information. Here, the characteristics of the radio as an audio medium connect with the rigors of the prepared script as a written medium. On another axis, the script is an arrangement of words on a page aimed at expressing a set of meanings and ideas. It is shaped in a desired manner by the use of devices like spelling, divisions like sentences, paragraphs etc and punctuation.
The various dimensions and nuances of the script and the message it Language in India www. The success of the news discourse lies in the efficiency with which the written discourse of the script is translated into the read discourse of the news reader, so as to reflect the preferred reading.
The first five factors can also be said to arise out of the particularities of the broadcast medium. By convention, news broadcasts are always done live; that is, the presentation and transmission of the news broadcast are always simultaneous. This means the news reader has to be alert to minimize faults because there is never scope for editing, in the course of presentation. It also means that the amount of matter that goes into a bulletin has to be necessarily circumscribed by the length of the broadcast. There is a physical limit to the number of items that can be read within the allotted time limit.
There is also no scope for a wide variety of sentence structures, new lexical items etc because the reader as well as the listener will not have the time to reflect on and understand the relevance of such nuances. The final five characteristics define the language of radio discourse. They help in delivering the written script into an oral presentation. Birth Star which is exclusively applicable to the native who born from indicate the balance account of the past and provide vigilant first pada to third pada, other than fourth pada. The sixty signal to define the future life.
They determine the thinking Naadis of Moola Nakshatra may be devided into fifteen parts pattern, destiny, instincts that governs the subconscious wherein gets groupof four Naadis each. Among which the aspects of personality. The Saint Parashara had specified the results of cluster of each four Naadis shall be 1 father 2 corrupting effects of certain stars under two streams such as Fathers brother 3 Sisters Husband 4 Grandfather 5 Padadosha and Gandanda covered in ancient texts.
Mother 6 Mothers younger Sister. Evil effects od jyeshta star 7. Antagonistic effects of ashta-nakshatras Jyotir Ganita narrates to divide the total Naadis after sun rise If the native born with birth star of Chitra, Ardra, Aslesha, which entered into Jyeshta Star with ten and result can be Jyeshta, Shatabhishta, Moola, Krithika and Pushya bestows fixed for every six naadis each .
Mrutyubhaga, Samhara Thara  and Durithamshaka  are as detailed below:- 6. All the living beings takes incarnation to enjoy the benefic or deadly effects of the pre-births. The result lw;saZnqxzg. It is considered as utmost inauspicious whenhuman birth as well as normal puberty Qyk;ya fodyksfi dykS;qxsA happens during this time. Out of four naadis, each one affects HorasastramCh-6, P.
As remedy, adoration of Rudra, Yama, Deity of Kaala is required along Theethics of Astrology suggests to acquireSpiritual perfection with Agnihotrahoma. The puberty or birth happens during to nutralizethe deposited ill-effects so as to seek eternal Solar or Lunar Eclips, that will adveresely affect father and salvation from this material world . Though the auspicious glowing lamp in the darkness. That demonstrate the pros and outcome will not reach perfection, that is sufficient for cons of previous Karma and the planets illustrate whether Krutayuga whereas inauspicious effects will not culminate man is enjoying or suffering the results of previous birth.
The features of the seven distinct stars as Brihatsamhita Ch,Ver-2,5,8,10,13 P.
The word Karma can be r? Maadhveeyam Cha Ver-1, P Diomatic nature of eight nakshatras 9. Revelation of seventh bhava The Mahadasharesults of a person depend upon the strength When the seventh Bhava becomes benefic sign with quality and position of stars, planets, and the rajayogas. Under Amshaka-Nakshatra, the woman will be physicallyauspicious Kalachakradasa, the Nakshatra dasastands as an imperative for married life. When the star position of Moon, Ascendant paradigm. Maadhveeyacharya indicate the numbers assigned and lord of seventh bhava gets exalted aspect, she becomes to disastrousstars for fxing the time and the prashna related qualitative chasteblessed with superior progenies.
If the birth with loss of valued substance. For Krithika six, knife , star posited indepleting combinations and seventh bhava is Arudra one, bell , Pushyami three, arrow , Aslesha six, hemmed with hapless,she will be a barren woman. If the wheel , Chitra one, pearl , Jyeshta three, Serpent , Moola symptoms related with seveth and eight bhava becomes week nine, Lion and Shatbhishta hundred,Ash-guard are the and Nakshatra Dosha is falling simultaneously, majority of number  and corresponding items given in the texts.
The narried life becomes fatalistically detrimental. The expressivenature of these stars are becoming instrumental to Thrimsamsaka Doshaof seventh bhava combined with understand different aspects in Astrology. Nakshatra Dosha, themarried life become perilous. Denunciations The Karthika Star natives will suffer intermittent health Person born with maligantstars shows peculiar attention on problems and prone to goitre, pimples, venerial diseases, internal and external slandering and disparagement that menstraul obstracles and spontilitis. Female natives ofArdra triggers the hostility within the family.
When the individual may face late marriage problems and life shall not be having multifaceted qualities who acts with guilty conscience satisfactory. To alleviate the bad effects, it is better to chant in a bad tempered situation, the whole acquiredreputation will Shivapanchakshari mantra times. Those who belong to vanish temporarily. The merits and demerits of first, fourth, Pushyamai may be having moral chastity whereas she will be fifth, seventh and nineth bhava in a natal chart can be verified accused immorally.
Aslesha Starfemales may be cruel, dare in terms of streejatakavishesha of Phaladeepika . Wear black In Kaliyuga, thehonorable person is getting accused even colour and doing Sarpa Pooja or Rahu Pooja showers better though he is capable to keep their solemnity totide over the results. For traits of Chithira, adoration of Jagadambha, calumnies. For instance, the egotism of King Mahabali born Bhavani or Durga and submit glaring clothes with dedication with birth star Moola is the best example.
Generally, the shall reduce the ill-effects. Jyeshta Star natives should adorm individuals having birth star ofKarthika, Arudra, Aslesha, Mahavishnu and chanting mantras of Durga or Kalimaa by Jyehta, Shatabhisha possess guilty conscious are extensively wearing dark coloured dress will call for better results. The degraded in contemporary life. Those who are desirous about person with Moola Star should Chanting Mantras of Rudra peaceful life, they have to perform timely redemption of and Kaali times corresponding to constellation effects.
Astrology always give philosophical visions Shatabhisha star native should visit Kalahasti and adoration of and indications but never advocate. Contemporary experience Rahu is advisable. Offering black clothes on Saturday and and code of ethics arepertinent which makes the Astro- worshipping Saturn will nullify the cruicial effects. Elucidation of Remedies Man as a social animal, can propagate ridiculous denigrations Aatma. By doing the appropriate expiations the body become to thrash out onesideal self-respect for a free from the disease in line with Karmavipaka.
The essence certainperiod. Astrology indicates the reason for birth star of doing remedies are submission of regret and apology . Strength, intelligence, penance, mind, imagination, thoughts, Nakshatra Mantras words, names, mantra and karmas are the resultant of the Vedic Jyotisha recommends reciting relevant mantras that are Aatma. The spirit is the part of Aatma which formulated due seemingly reliable to diminish their negativity of the to consequence of action.
The body is not connected with following eight restricted stars Nakshatra purush vrata for afflication of birthstars The fasting connected with Nakshatra Purushahas been lqo. All the twenty seven Nakshatras are lqd. Validation of birth-star effects KirshnapakshaChaitramasa. Ekadashi Fasting is also The true experience of ascetics derived from universal suggested propitiating the Lord of twelve months covered morality and spontaneous vicinity of intermediary omens under Vaishanavism covering deities of Keshava, becomes perceivable doctrines.
Consequently, Astrological Narayan,Madhava, Govinda, Vishnu Madhusudhana, birth-star accusations asserts the following conscientious Trivikrama, Vamana, Shreeedhara, Rishikesha, Padmanabha detections coupled with pertinent coincidences among the and Damodara. Feeding of Sadhus, offering of ghee, gem married:- stones, clothes, to the LearnedDaiavajna or Brahmin at the 1.
Birth star adversities of the bride detected directly time of consummation of fasting, based on ones affluence, interrelated with mother-in-law. Those who are performing Nakshtra 2.